When in control of the area of Iraq north of Baghdad, including the city of Fallujah, ISIS prepared to defend its position from inevitable government counterattack through the widespread use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) laid as defensive obstacles in patterns similar to conventional minefields. The subsequent destruction of bridges over the Tigris River further strengthened the ability of ISIS to defend the city and prevent the civilians trapped within from escaping.
Publication: The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction. Issue 23.2
Publication date: July 2019
About the author:
Mark Wilkinson, Ph.D, a UNMAS (Iraq) Explosive Hazard Management Team Lead, has twenty years of professional experience in military and humanitarian mine action. His academic background includes a master’s degree in global security and a Ph.D. in politics and international studies.